Historic reviews counsel rising corn seed prices for 2022 • farmdoc day by day

The prices of corn seeds have elevated over time. Genetic enhancements and using biotechnology in hybrids have led to larger yields, contributing to the overall improve in seed costs and seed prices per acre. Seed prices are additionally positively related to the rise in anticipated earnings from maize manufacturing. Consequently, seed prices per acre in america will possible improve in 2022.

Seed prices per acre

Determine 1 exhibits the seed prices per acre for corn from two sources. The blue line exhibits seed prices for all the United States and is ready by the Financial Analysis Service (ERS), an company of america Division of Agriculture. The inexperienced line exhibits the per acre seed prices incurred by central Illinois farmers enrolled within the Illinois Farm Enterprise Farm Administration (FBFM) program.

These prices come from two impartial sources utilizing totally different information assortment strategies. As proven in Determine 1, USDA and FBFM seed prices per acre observe one another intently. For the years for which each sources present information – 2000 to 2020 – the correlation coefficient between the 2 sequence could be very excessive. Farms in central Illinois have larger seed prices per acre, probably on account of the next yield potential in central Illinois in comparison with america. For instance, pattern yield represents a forecast of yields earlier than progress (see farmdoc daily, April 27, 2021 for an evidence of pattern returns). In 2020, the anticipated yield for FBFM farms in central Illinois was 220 bushels per acre, in comparison with 174 bushels per acre for america.

Three intervals of seed prices are evident in Determine 1. From 1975 to 2005, seed prices per acre elevated steadily, with a mean improve per acre in america of $ 1.13 per yr.

Throughout the second interval from 2006 to 2013, corn costs elevated because of the rising use of corn within the manufacturing of ethanol. Consequently, anticipated corn revenues have reached larger ranges and seed prices per acre have elevated. In america, seed prices have elevated from $ 44 per acre in 2006 to $ 102 per acre in 2015, a mean annual improve of $ 6.50 per acre.

The third interval was a interval of declining commodity costs, comparable to a gradual progress in using corn in ethanol. Throughout the interval 2015 to 2020, seed prices decreased barely from $ 102 in 2015 to $ 92 in 2020.

Maize costs elevated on the finish of 2020 and endured till 2021. Historic relationships counsel that these larger maize costs may trigger seed prices to extend in 2022.

Historic relationships explaining seed prices per acre

A statistical analysis was performed to find out the elements affecting seed prices per acre in america. US information was used somewhat than central Illinois information as a result of an extended time sequence exists for US information. Two elements clarify greater than 90% of the variability in seed prices per acre.

Anticipated gross earnings: Will increase in anticipated gross revenues have usually resulted in elevated seed prices per acre. For this evaluation, the anticipated gross earnings is the same as the pattern yield multiplied by the worth of maize from the earlier yr. Costs depend upon the climate and final yr’s consequence is an effective highlight on subsequent yr’s value.

The anticipated gross earnings from corn was very statistically important. General, the regression outcomes counsel {that a} $ 100 improve in gross revenues leads to a $ 7 improve in seed prices; nevertheless, improve (lower) enters the connection over time. The anticipated earnings distinction between 2021 and 2022 would possible lead to a rise of $ 6 to $ 7 in seed prices.

A variety of financial causes may be invoked to justify the rise in seed prices in years when the anticipated gross earnings is larger. Larger anticipated gross incomes usually imply that corn will probably be extra worthwhile, doubtlessly leading to extra acres of corn and higher demand for seeds. Larger demand often interprets into larger costs, particularly with a comparatively fastened seed provide in any given yr. As well as, there’s competitors between hybrids; generally, hybrids with larger anticipated yields have larger seed costs. If a hybrid has a yield benefit over different hybrids, that yield benefit will probably be valued larger in larger value years. Consequently, farmers are possible prepared to pay extra for this yield benefit in years when the anticipated costs are larger. These elements additionally work in the wrong way.

Time: Over time, the prices of seeds elevated in comparison with the anticipated gross earnings. Determine 2 exhibits the seed prices per acre divided by the anticipated gross earnings, thus illustrating the upward pattern in seed prices as a share of the anticipated gross earnings. Throughout the interval 1975 to 2020, seed prices per acre elevated by a mean of $ 2.70 per yr.

A variety of causes may be cited to clarify the rise in seed prices over time. The hybrids repeatedly elevated their yield, resulting in the next seed worth. Moreover, the biotech traits of corn hybrids have led to administration advantages over time, which may result in reductions in pesticides and tillage prices. Over time, hybrids have specialised in a geographic space and soil kind. For all these causes, seeds and genetic enhancements in seeds have develop into extra worthwhile over time.

As well as, the genetics of seeds and crops have develop into more and more concentrated. Over time, many seed corporations have consolidated and merged. At the moment, three corporations – Bayer, Corteva and Syngenta – have a major share of biotech traits and are investing closely in crop genetics. The function of competitors within the value of seeds is just not effectively understood. Nevertheless, consolidation developments are decreasing the variety of companies competing for a share of farmers’ purchases.


Over time, seed prices have been positively associated to the anticipated gross earnings for maize. Moreover, seed prices have trended upward over time. At present, gross corn revenues are anticipated to be larger in 2022 than lately. Consequently, the prices of corn seeds are anticipated to extend. A rise within the vary of $ 6 to $ 10 an acre is predicted on a nationwide common foundation.

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